syl2009.txt July 2009


W.M. Hartmann, 171 Giltner Hall, 
tel: 55202,
   Office hours: MW 10:30-11:30.

Class meeting: MWF 4:10 - 5:00 pm

Text: Signals, Sound, and Sensation 
by W.M. Hartmann, 
AIP Press (Springer-Verlag), 1997.

Demos HRW = Houtsma, Rossing, Wagenaars, 
"Auditory Demos on Compact Disc."


 1 Introduction to the course, sine waves. 

 2 Sine waves: period, frequency, amplitude, oscilloscope, 
	range of human hearing, auditory system anatomy 
	handout, peripheral auditory system, Ch.1; 1Ex 1,2,3,4. 

 3 Tonotopic encoding, sine wave tone color, sum of sine waves.
	Complex variable review, Ch.2; 2Ex 1,2,11. 

Expts. Ch. 1,2: Range of hearing for sine tones. Bekesy tracking. 
	The zero-crossing counter and how to fool it; 
	The reciprocal-reading frequency counter.
	Interference between two loudspeakers.

 4 Power, RMS values, crest factor. Linear systems - electrical,
 	mechanical and acoustical, Ch.3 pp 24-28; 3Ex 2,4. 

 5 Decibels I: Relative and absolute, electrical and acoustical,
	sound level meters - weighting scales, Ch.3 pp 28-33 and 39-40; 
	3Ex 7,12.

 6 Decibels II: Adding signals, spectrum level, spectrum analyzer,
	Ch.3 pp 40-50; 3Ex 21,24. 

Expts. Ch. 3: Measure 10:1 pulse with diverse AC voltmeters, including true 
	RMS meters. Sound level meters - A and C scales, fast and slow.
	Mix tone and noise, power in octave bands of white and pink noise.

 7 Loudness level, intensity difference limens, Weber Law, 
	Ch.4 pp 59-63; 4Ex 4,5,12. 

 8 Loudness - sones, Fechner Law, Stevens Law, Hellman-Hellman
	model, Ch.4 pp 63-71; 4Ex 1,3,8. 

 9 Loudness summation across frequency, temporal integration,
	Ch.4 pp 72-78; 4Ex 9,10. 

Expts. Ch. 4: 2-dB changes, Loudness scaling HRW 7, 8. Doubling experiment.
	Temporal integration, Loudness and bandwidth, HRW 3.

10 Fourier series I: Definition of the series, projecting 
	functions, spectrum, amplitude and phase, Ch.5 pp 81-92; 5Ex 1,2a,5.
	[Handout operating instructions for HP spectrum analyzer.]

11 Fourier series II: Symmetry, computation, Ch.5 pp 92-100; 5Ex 3,7,11. 
	[Handout table of periodic functions and Fourier series.]

12 Fourier series III - Exercises: exponential form, optimum
	finite series, 5Ex 14,17,19,21. 

Expts. Ch. 5: HP 3580A spectrum analyzer and standard functions.
	Sound Forge analyzer. Audible harmonics with sharp bandpass filter.
	Computer synthesis of waveforms. Gibbs phenomena. 

13 EXAM 1 - Chapters 1 through 5.

14 Perception of periodic tones: idealized musical tones, peripheral 
	analysis, pulsation threshold method, Ch.6 pp 117-123;	6Ex 3. 

15 Auditory frequency analysis, masking, formant structure of
	vowels, hearing out harmonics, Duifhuis pitch, segregation and
	integration of tones, template matching, Ch.6 pp 123-140; 6Ex 1,2,4.

16 Pitch and tone color of periodic tones, missing fundamental,
	pitch and chroma, Ch.6 pp 140-148; 6Ex 5,6. 
	[handout on pitch effects per HRW.]

Expts. Ch. 6: Pulsation threshold HRW 11 and pulsed Tchaikovsky.
	Tonotopic harmonic analysis HRW 1, enhancement and unmasking.
	Harmonic chant. Hykes - Windhorse Riders.
	McAdams FM demo. Mistuned harmonic segregation.
	Virtual pitch [HRW 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27.
	Tuning dichotic octaves.
17 The Dirac delta function, Ch.7 pp 150-157; 7Ex 2,4,5,6,7.

18 The Fourier integral I: Definition, even and odd functions,
	Ch.8 pp 161-169; 8Ex 1,2,3. 

19 The Fourier integral II: Time shifting, derivatives and 
	integrals, convolution, Ch.8 pp 169-173; 8Ex 5,6,8,9.

20 The Fourier integral III: Introduction to correlation functions
	and filtering, periodic functions, the lattice sum, large and 
	small scales, Ch.8 pp 173-183; 8Ex 16,17,19. 

Expts. Ch. 8: Harvard tape 5 - Shepard illusions.
	PC Convolution program - generate by computer - see on 'scope - 
	    hear through phones.
21 Filters I: Transfer function and impulse response, time invariant
	systems, first order filter and step function response, 
	Ch.9 pp 195-209; 9Ex 2,3,4. [Demo speech spectrogram ]

22 Filters II: Second order filter: transfer functions and impulse
	response, resonance, Q-factor, Ch.9 pp 209-214; 9Ex 5,7,11.[Demo
	state variable filter - graphic and parametric equalizer, Q,
	ringing, resonance, phase shift. Music through a filter.]

23 Filters III: Transversal filters, all-pass filters, Huggins
	pitch, Ch.9 pp 214-216 and 218-222; 9Ex 8,13.

Expts. Ch. 9: Speech spectrogram. State-variable filter, resonance, Q, ringing,
	phase shifts. Graphic and parametric equalizers. Music in octave bands.
	Construct an all-pass filter with op amps and Huggins pitch.

24 REVIEW Chapters 6 through 9.

25 EXAM 2 Chapters 6 through 9.

26 Auditory filtering I: cochlear tuning as measured in the
	auditory nerve, rectangular filters and the critical ratio,
	roex filter, Ch.10 pp 238-248; 10Ex 2,4,9. 

27 Auditory filtering II: critical bands, gammatone filter,
	subjective consequences of critical bands, Ch.10 pp 249-258;
	10Ex 7,8,10. 

Expts. Ch. 10: Critical bands in masking, HRW 2, 3, 9. Roughness.
	Stream segregation - van Noorden, and HRW 19. Masking growth
	with level. Tuning curves with pulsation threshold.

28 Musical scales, octaves and cents, Ch.11 pp 264-274; 11Ex 1,2. 

29 Consonance and harmony, stretched scales, Ch.11 pp 275-279; 11Ex 5,6,7. 

Expts. Ch. 11: HRW 18, 28. Music of Harry Partch. Stretched partials HRW 31.

30 Pitch of sine tones, Ch.12 pp 282-298; 12Ex 1,3.

Expts. Ch. 12: Intensity and masking effects [HRW 12, 14]. Octave enlargement
	[HRW 15, 16]. Diplacusis, JND and HRW 17 - pulsed sines vs matching
	vs FM detection.

31 Power spectrum, time reversed signals, onset transients,
	Ch.13 pp 302-314; 13Ex 1,3. 

32 Uncertainty and the pitch of short tones, spectral rake,
	Ch.13 pp 317-328; 13Ex 7,8. 

Expts. Ch. 13:  Echoes in HRW 35. Pitch vs duration - HRW 13. Alternating
	pulses. Turning on a tone.

33 Correlation functions, Wiener Khintchine relation,
	periodic functions, Ch.14 pp 332-341; 14Ex 2,3,5.

34 Parseval's theorem, noise bands, symmetry, cross-correlation, 
	autocorrelation and pitch, Ch.14 pp 341-348 and
	pp 352-355; 14Ex 8,10,12. 

Expts. Ch. 14: Binaural effects HRW 37 and 38. Demo cross-correlation for 
	noise band through KEMAR. Incoherence detection.

35 Delay-and-add filtering, repetition pitch, Ch.15 pp 361-368; 15Ex 2,3. 

Expts. Ch. 15: Repetition pitch, HRW 26. Reflections in rooms, flutter echo.

36 Beats, Ch.17 pp 393-398; 17Ex 1,2. 

37 Amplitude modulation, balanced modulation, the frequency
	domain grating, Ch.17 pp 399-408; 17Ex 4,5,10. 

Expts. Ch. 17: Jeffress beats demo. Amplitude modulation and balanced 
	modulation with analog multiplier. Modulation transfer function.

38 REVIEW Chapters 10,11,12,13,14,15,17.

39 EXAM 3 Chapters 10,11,12,13,14,15,17.

40 Frequency modulation I: narrowband FM, phasor comparison
	with AM, QFM, wide-band FM, Ch.19 pp 430-442; 19Ex 1,2. 

41 Frequency modulation II: wide-band FM continued, detection
	of FM by human listeners, Ch.19 pp 442-446; 19Ex 3,5,6.

Expts. Ch. 19 & 20: Program MIXMOD - spectrum of narrow band and wideband 
	FM and mixed modulation.

42 Sampled signals I: quantization, Nyquist criterion, 
	undersampling and aliasing, Ch.21 pp 468-477; 21Ex 1,3,6.

43 Sampled signals II: sample and hold, jitter, DFT, FFT, 
	oversampling, Ch.21 pp 477-486; 21Ex 4,5,9.

Expts. Ch. 21:  Harvard 8, speech quantization. Program ALIAS shows aliasing.

44 Binaural physiology: Physics Today article. brainstem, midbrain. 
	Jeffress model and alternatives.

45 Binaural psychoacoustics: Interaural time and level differences. 

Expts. Binaural: ITD and ILD difference limens. Azimuth estimation. 
	Binaural beats. 


FE 5:45-7:45, FINAL EXAM - Cumulative. 

Grading: Class participation, homework problem sets and assigned 
	paragraphs, hourly exams, final exam.