syl2009.txt July 2009 PHY 405: SIGNALS, SOUND, AND SENSATION W.M. Hartmann, 171 Giltner Hall, tel: 55202, hartmann@pa.msu.edu Office hours: MW 10:30-11:30. Class meeting: MWF 4:10 - 5:00 pm Text: Signals, Sound, and Sensation by W.M. Hartmann, AIP Press (Springer-Verlag), 1997. Demos HRW = Houtsma, Rossing, Wagenaars, "Auditory Demos on Compact Disc." SCHEDULE 1 Introduction to the course, sine waves. 2 Sine waves: period, frequency, amplitude, oscilloscope, range of human hearing, auditory system anatomy handout, peripheral auditory system, Ch.1; 1Ex 1,2,3,4. 3 Tonotopic encoding, sine wave tone color, sum of sine waves. Complex variable review, Ch.2; 2Ex 1,2,11. Expts. Ch. 1,2: Range of hearing for sine tones. Bekesy tracking. The zero-crossing counter and how to fool it; The reciprocal-reading frequency counter. Interference between two loudspeakers. 4 Power, RMS values, crest factor. Linear systems - electrical, mechanical and acoustical, Ch.3 pp 24-28; 3Ex 2,4. 5 Decibels I: Relative and absolute, electrical and acoustical, sound level meters - weighting scales, Ch.3 pp 28-33 and 39-40; 3Ex 7,12. 6 Decibels II: Adding signals, spectrum level, spectrum analyzer, Ch.3 pp 40-50; 3Ex 21,24. Expts. Ch. 3: Measure 10:1 pulse with diverse AC voltmeters, including true RMS meters. Sound level meters - A and C scales, fast and slow. Mix tone and noise, power in octave bands of white and pink noise. 7 Loudness level, intensity difference limens, Weber Law, Ch.4 pp 59-63; 4Ex 4,5,12. 8 Loudness - sones, Fechner Law, Stevens Law, Hellman-Hellman model, Ch.4 pp 63-71; 4Ex 1,3,8. 9 Loudness summation across frequency, temporal integration, Ch.4 pp 72-78; 4Ex 9,10. Expts. Ch. 4: 2-dB changes, Loudness scaling HRW 7, 8. Doubling experiment. Temporal integration, Loudness and bandwidth, HRW 3. 10 Fourier series I: Definition of the series, projecting functions, spectrum, amplitude and phase, Ch.5 pp 81-92; 5Ex 1,2a,5. [Handout operating instructions for HP spectrum analyzer.] 11 Fourier series II: Symmetry, computation, Ch.5 pp 92-100; 5Ex 3,7,11. [Handout table of periodic functions and Fourier series.] 12 Fourier series III - Exercises: exponential form, optimum finite series, 5Ex 14,17,19,21. Expts. Ch. 5: HP 3580A spectrum analyzer and standard functions. Sound Forge analyzer. Audible harmonics with sharp bandpass filter. Computer synthesis of waveforms. Gibbs phenomena. 13 EXAM 1 - Chapters 1 through 5. 14 Perception of periodic tones: idealized musical tones, peripheral analysis, pulsation threshold method, Ch.6 pp 117-123; 6Ex 3. 15 Auditory frequency analysis, masking, formant structure of vowels, hearing out harmonics, Duifhuis pitch, segregation and integration of tones, template matching, Ch.6 pp 123-140; 6Ex 1,2,4. 16 Pitch and tone color of periodic tones, missing fundamental, pitch and chroma, Ch.6 pp 140-148; 6Ex 5,6. [handout on pitch effects per HRW.] Expts. Ch. 6: Pulsation threshold HRW 11 and pulsed Tchaikovsky. Tonotopic harmonic analysis HRW 1, enhancement and unmasking. Harmonic chant. Hykes - Windhorse Riders. McAdams FM demo. Mistuned harmonic segregation. Virtual pitch [HRW 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27. Tuning dichotic octaves. 17 The Dirac delta function, Ch.7 pp 150-157; 7Ex 2,4,5,6,7. 18 The Fourier integral I: Definition, even and odd functions, Ch.8 pp 161-169; 8Ex 1,2,3. 19 The Fourier integral II: Time shifting, derivatives and integrals, convolution, Ch.8 pp 169-173; 8Ex 5,6,8,9. 20 The Fourier integral III: Introduction to correlation functions and filtering, periodic functions, the lattice sum, large and small scales, Ch.8 pp 173-183; 8Ex 16,17,19. Expts. Ch. 8: Harvard tape 5 - Shepard illusions. PC Convolution program - generate by computer - see on 'scope - hear through phones. 21 Filters I: Transfer function and impulse response, time invariant systems, first order filter and step function response, Ch.9 pp 195-209; 9Ex 2,3,4. [Demo speech spectrogram ] 22 Filters II: Second order filter: transfer functions and impulse response, resonance, Q-factor, Ch.9 pp 209-214; 9Ex 5,7,11.[Demo state variable filter - graphic and parametric equalizer, Q, ringing, resonance, phase shift. Music through a filter.] 23 Filters III: Transversal filters, all-pass filters, Huggins pitch, Ch.9 pp 214-216 and 218-222; 9Ex 8,13. Expts. Ch. 9: Speech spectrogram. State-variable filter, resonance, Q, ringing, phase shifts. Graphic and parametric equalizers. Music in octave bands. Construct an all-pass filter with op amps and Huggins pitch. 24 REVIEW Chapters 6 through 9. 25 EXAM 2 Chapters 6 through 9. 26 Auditory filtering I: cochlear tuning as measured in the auditory nerve, rectangular filters and the critical ratio, roex filter, Ch.10 pp 238-248; 10Ex 2,4,9. 27 Auditory filtering II: critical bands, gammatone filter, subjective consequences of critical bands, Ch.10 pp 249-258; 10Ex 7,8,10. Expts. Ch. 10: Critical bands in masking, HRW 2, 3, 9. Roughness. Stream segregation - van Noorden, and HRW 19. Masking growth with level. Tuning curves with pulsation threshold. 28 Musical scales, octaves and cents, Ch.11 pp 264-274; 11Ex 1,2. 29 Consonance and harmony, stretched scales, Ch.11 pp 275-279; 11Ex 5,6,7. Expts. Ch. 11: HRW 18, 28. Music of Harry Partch. Stretched partials HRW 31. 30 Pitch of sine tones, Ch.12 pp 282-298; 12Ex 1,3. Expts. Ch. 12: Intensity and masking effects [HRW 12, 14]. Octave enlargement [HRW 15, 16]. Diplacusis, JND and HRW 17 - pulsed sines vs matching vs FM detection. 31 Power spectrum, time reversed signals, onset transients, Ch.13 pp 302-314; 13Ex 1,3. 32 Uncertainty and the pitch of short tones, spectral rake, Ch.13 pp 317-328; 13Ex 7,8. Expts. Ch. 13: Echoes in HRW 35. Pitch vs duration - HRW 13. Alternating pulses. Turning on a tone. 33 Correlation functions, Wiener Khintchine relation, periodic functions, Ch.14 pp 332-341; 14Ex 2,3,5. 34 Parseval's theorem, noise bands, symmetry, cross-correlation, autocorrelation and pitch, Ch.14 pp 341-348 and pp 352-355; 14Ex 8,10,12. Expts. Ch. 14: Binaural effects HRW 37 and 38. Demo cross-correlation for noise band through KEMAR. Incoherence detection. 35 Delay-and-add filtering, repetition pitch, Ch.15 pp 361-368; 15Ex 2,3. Expts. Ch. 15: Repetition pitch, HRW 26. Reflections in rooms, flutter echo. 36 Beats, Ch.17 pp 393-398; 17Ex 1,2. 37 Amplitude modulation, balanced modulation, the frequency domain grating, Ch.17 pp 399-408; 17Ex 4,5,10. Expts. Ch. 17: Jeffress beats demo. Amplitude modulation and balanced modulation with analog multiplier. Modulation transfer function. 38 REVIEW Chapters 10,11,12,13,14,15,17. 39 EXAM 3 Chapters 10,11,12,13,14,15,17. 40 Frequency modulation I: narrowband FM, phasor comparison with AM, QFM, wide-band FM, Ch.19 pp 430-442; 19Ex 1,2. 41 Frequency modulation II: wide-band FM continued, detection of FM by human listeners, Ch.19 pp 442-446; 19Ex 3,5,6. Expts. Ch. 19 & 20: Program MIXMOD - spectrum of narrow band and wideband FM and mixed modulation. 42 Sampled signals I: quantization, Nyquist criterion, undersampling and aliasing, Ch.21 pp 468-477; 21Ex 1,3,6. 43 Sampled signals II: sample and hold, jitter, DFT, FFT, oversampling, Ch.21 pp 477-486; 21Ex 4,5,9. Expts. Ch. 21: Harvard 8, speech quantization. Program ALIAS shows aliasing. 44 Binaural physiology: Physics Today article. brainstem, midbrain. Jeffress model and alternatives. 45 Binaural psychoacoustics: Interaural time and level differences. Expts. Binaural: ITD and ILD difference limens. Azimuth estimation. Binaural beats. 46 GENERAL REVIEW FE 5:45-7:45, FINAL EXAM - Cumulative. Grading: Class participation, homework problem sets and assigned paragraphs, hourly exams, final exam.