Electromagnetism and modern physics (algebra based):
Electrostatics: electric charge, point charge. The atomic nature of matter: electron, proton, neutron, elementary charge, quarks. Coulomb's law. Benjamin Franklin: sign convention, tribolelectric series, the conservation of electric charge. Polarization vs. influence. Electric field: vector field. Electric field lines, electric flux, flux density. The superposition principle of electric fields.
Electric potential: scalar field. Potential energy, potential, potential difference, voltage. Electric field as the negative slope of the potential: steepest descent. Conductors in electrostatics. Equipotential surfaces. Capacitors: applications. Parallel plate capacitor, capacitance. Storing charge and energy. Energy density of the electric field. Dielectrics: dielectric constant or relative permittivity. Capacitors in parallel and in series: equivalent capacitance.
Electric current: the flow of electric charge. Current density. Drift velocity. Ohm's law: macroscopic and microscopic. Resistance, resistivity. Power, Joule heat. DC circuits: batteries and resistors. EMF: electromotive force, terminal voltage, internal resistance. Electric circuits: voltage and current. Kirchhoff's rules: 1st: junction rule (conservation of electric charge), 2nd: loop rule (conservation of energy). Resistors in series and parallel: equivalent resistance. Galvanometer, voltmeter, ampermeter or ammeter. RC-circuits.
Magnetic fields and magnetism: point charge in magnetic field: Lorentz force. Vector product, right hand rule. Cyclotron, CRT, mass spectrometer, isotope separator, velocity selector. Force on a current carrying wire. Magnetic dipole moment, torque on a magnetic dipole, potential energy of a magnetic dipole inside a magnetic field. Magnetic field pruduced by a current carrying wire: Oersted experiment. Ampere's law, Biot-Savart law. Straight wire, solenoid, toroid, circular loop. Force between two current carrying wire: the metric definition of ampere. Magnetism of matter: paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism.
Electromagnetic induction: magnetic flux, Faraday's law of induction, Lenz's law. Eddy currents. Motional and rotational EMF. The generation of electric power. Eddy currents. Self-induction. Solenoid: B-field, flux, flux linkage, energy. Energy density of the magnetic field. RL-circuits.
Electromagnetic waves. Experiments: Hertz, Marconi, Braun, Tesla. The electromagnetic spectrum: long, medium and short waves, microwaves, infrared (IR), visible, ultraviolet (UV), x-ray, gamma ray. Momentum and energy carried by electromagnetic waves: radiation pressure and intensity. The solar constant. Polarization of EM waves. Intensity: one half rule and Malus's law. Application: LCD displays. Optical acivity of organic materials. Pasteur.
AC circuits: alternating voltage and current. RMS: the effective value. Resistor, inductor, capacitor, AC generator: driven RLC circuit. Resistance, capacitive and inductive reactance, impedance. Current resonance in RLC circuit. LC-circuit, Thomson formula. Power in AC circuits: apparent, true and reactive power. Phase angle, power factor. Transmitting AC power, transformer. Edison and Tesla, the war of currents.
Geometric optics: reflection and refraction, Snell's law. Index of refraction, chromatic dispersion. Polarization by reflection, Brewster's angle. Total internal reflection, optical fibers. Mirrors and lenses, focal lengths. Mirror and lens equation. Real and virtual images. Lateral magnification. Lensmaker's equation. Optical instruments: eye, camera, projector, microscope, telescopes, magnifying glass. Far and near sighted eye: eye glasses, diopter.
Wave optics: Huygens, Young, Fresnel, Fraunhofer. Huygens principle. Phase, phase angle. Interference: constructive and destructive. Diffraction, diffraction grating. Single slit diffraction. Double slit. Thin film interference: reflection and transmission. Phase jump in reflection. Rayleigh's criterion for circular apertures.
Special Relativity: observation and experiments: stellar aberration, Bradley; Fizeau's experiment; Michelson-Morley experiment. Einstein's theory of relativity. The two postulates: 1st: the invariance of physical laws, 2nd: the constancy of the speed of the light. Space and time: space-time. Proper time, time dilatation. Proper length, Lorentz contraction. Space-time interval, Minkowski space. Twin paradox. Doppler effect. Red-shift of star light. The expansion of the Universe. Relativistic energy, rest energy, rest mass. Relativistic momentum.
Black body radiation: Wien's displacement law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Planck's radiation curve. Planck's constant. Photoelectric effect, work function. Photon, the particle of light: Einstein's Nobel prize. Roentgen: x-rays. Thomson: cathode rays, electron. Milliken: the charge of the electron. Compton effect. Positron, the anti-particle of the electron. Bragg's law, crystal structures. De Broglie: electron waves, matter waves. Particle-wave duality. Bohr: complementarity. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Schrodinger: wave function, wave equation. The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics.
The structure of the atoms: Thomson vs. Rutherford. Optical spectroscopy, spectrums, Rydberg's equation. Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom. The periodic table of the elements. Quantum numbers, the Pauli exclusion principle. The quantum mechanics of the chemical bond.
Radioactivity: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The structure of the nucleus: protons and neutrons. Nuclear radius: the liquid drop model. Nuclear stability, binding energy. Fusion and fission. Radioactive decay: life time, half life. Chain reaction, nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs, nuclear energy. Elementary partices: fermions and bosons. The quark model. The four fundamental interactions in Nature.