AST disk size of orbits 10357 (re US map) 10359 10361 (Earth-Jupiter) 10362 (Jovian) inclination of orbits 10365 tilt of rotation axis 10366Images:
Beyond Earth Astronomy Mercury 311 10345 Venus clouds 312 10346 Venus surface 313 (radar) 11101-11105, 10386 Earth 314 10347, 10387 Moon 315 11629 Mars 1011 10348, 10388 Jupiter 320 10349 Saturn 323 10350 Uranus 324 Neptune 325
Symmetrical orientation of magnetic field in parallel strips
of rock on either side of ridge.
Recently -- laser ranging off of Moon shows motion directly.
Plate Tectonics now the established model.
Images:
Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars ------- ----- ----- ---- ---- Impact Craters BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 476-478 558,565, 750-753 842,841 1037 (1/2 disk) 570-573, (full disk) (~ maria) 479,485,487 592 891 (detail) (details) 850 (C on C) 492 (2 types) 848 (rays) 493 (rays) AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 10474, 10488 11557,11558 11593,11629 12059 10511-10515 (full disk) (full disk) 11643 10489 (detail) Volcanoes BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 560,561 703,704 842 1013 563,564,566 (maria) 852 (detail) AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 11530 11633 12196 (Olympus) 11634(detail)12463,12600-5 11631,11632 12379-83 (Olymp) 11598,11603 12501 11604,11729 Mountains Comparisons: BE 628 BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 549,551 647 892-895 (full disk) 555 (rugged) AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 10651,54 11772 (mud walls) 10549 (scarps) Rocks Surface BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 527,528 1047-1050 AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 10779-80 12722-12727 12737-12773 12828-12902 12077,12115 Rivers BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 657,688 1032,1034 AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 11480 12121,12482 11326, 11394 12057 Rifts BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 1013,1065 1043 (detail) AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 12584,12593 12596,12584 12123,12126 Erosian BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 1033 AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: Poles BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: 1025 AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 12461, 12465-8 12571,12554 12503,10388 Topography: BE: BE: BE: BE: BE: AST: AST: AST: AST: AST: 10386 10387 10388 10383-84
Density (uncompressed) Water 1 g/cm^{3} Rock 2 (crust)-5 (densest) g/cm^{3} Iron Sulfide 5 g/cm^{3} Iron 8 g/cm^{3}
Ocean Temperature
movie (6.2 Mb)
Atmospheric Moisture
movie (4.3 Mb)
Jupiter
JUPITER and SATURN: AST 10344, PV - 33521 URANUS Magnetic Field: IV - 37:56-38:45
JUPITER: Views IV - 14:50-15:50 Rotation: PV - 32595 (play) Winds PV - 34568 (play) Red Spot PV - 35226, 44923 (red & white + wakes), 35429 (play) SATURN: size PV - 36090 Atmosphere PV - 36103-5, 36120-27, 36147-50 Red oval PV - 36162 Rotation PV - 36680 (animation) PV - 37690 (animation) URANUS size PV - 40666 true-false clr (bands) PV - 45542 cloud PV - 45538 cloud motion PV - 45533 NEPTUNE Atmosphere IV - 44:03 - 47:36
JUPITER: Io (size) PV - 35887 (views) PV - 35948, 35892-906 (35901 = volcanic crater) PV - 35908-14 (35912 = crater no rim) (volcanism) PV - 35951,60-62) (plumes) PV - 35927-32 (identify volcanoes) BE - 1153-56 (full), BE - 1158,61,63,64,66,69,70,71 (craters) BE - 1178-83 (plumes) BE - 1246 (internal structure) Europa (size) PV - 35850 (views) PV - 35856 BE - 1216-1218 Ganymede (size) PV - 35778 (views) PV - 35786-89 PV - 35792-803 PV - 35805-08 PV - 44956, 57, 60, 61,76 (high res views) BE - 1220-1223 Callisto (size) PV - 35734 (views) PV - 35742-47 BE - 1224-1226 SATURN: Moons IV - 27:30-29:25 Mimas (chapt 22) size PV - 39441 views PV - 39445-53 BE - 1303-5 Enceladus (chapt 23) size PV - 39471 views PV - 39474-77 BE - 1306 Tethys (chapt 24) size PV - 39489 views PV - 39492-99, 39501 BE - 1308 Dione (chapt 25) size PV - 39519 views PV - 39522-26 Titan (chapt 27) size PV - 39595 views PV - 39606-7 BE - 1313-16 URANUS: Titania: size PV - 41728 full disk PV - 45587 terminator PV - 45584 mosaic PV - 45645 Arial: size PV - 41748 views PV - 41762-64 mosaic PV - 45637 highest resolution PV - 45608, 45630 Miranda: size PV - 41769 full disk PV - 45653 (color), 45605 BE - 1370-76 mosaic PV - 45668 rugged & grooved PV - 45611 fract, grooves, cratrs PV - 45614 Theory IV - 41:18-43:43 NEPTUNE: Triton (plumes) IV - 48:56 - 51:40 BE - 1445-51
JUPITER:Jupiter Ring Ring IV - 21:26-21:45 Ring PV - 36084-85 Rotation: PV - 32595 (play) SATURN: Rings PV - 38029, 31, 46, 51, 96 PV - 38575 (animation) PV - 38921 (animation) Shepard satellites PV - 38129-30 URANUS Rings: PV - 41682-85,89 BE - 1356-57 shepard sattelites PV - 41619 (same 45528) NEPTUNE: Ring: BE 1431-32
N = the number of advanced civilizations in our galaxy, the Milky Way. [no units]
R_{*} = the rate of star formation in the Galaxy, usually
taken to be 10 stars per year. [per year]
L = the average lifetime a civilization remains technologically
active.[year]
p = A number [no units] between 0 and 1. It's the product of a number of factors explained below.
The product p = f_{p}n_{e}f_{l}f_{i}f_{e} and each of these factors is the average:
f_{p} = fraction of stars which have planets.
n_{e} = Earthlike planets per Solar System.
f_{l} = Earthlike planets which have developed life.
f_{i} = fraction of life-bearing planets which have developed intelligent life.
f_{e} = fraction of intelligence-bearing planets capable of
interstellar communication.
This page will be updated continually throughout the course.
Updated:
2004.01.11 (Sunday) 23:29:52 EST